No! Telephones, use what are called RJ11 connectors for wired connections. RJ11s are smaller and do not have as many data lines. This cable has more data lines and uses RJ45 connectors on the ends.. All CAT5/6 cables and all computer connections use RJ45.
Landline phones do not use the same "rules" for sending information than computers or routers. You need Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) hardware and software to make calls over the internet. Sorry.